3.22 POLITICAL SCIENCE. frpnv/experience. There is no absolute separation of func- tions. 7 Laws are so important in their bearings on the inter- ests of a country, so apt to be drawn up hastily or in the spirit of party, or to contravene the provisions of the consti- tution, that there is need of some person outside of the legis- lative circle, to examine them and in an extreme case to 1 -, i prevent their..passage. Take the instance of a law which opposes, the true meaning of the constitution. The chief magistrate is advised by his legal counsellors that this is un- constitutional', and obstructs its passage. How much incon- venience and possibly oppression of the individual, how much expense in arguing the constitutional question is prevented by a declaration of. the chief magistrate that he cannot con- sent to the law. It would be unbecoming and might lead to bargaining between the departments if he expressed his opin ion beforehand or during a debate ; he has no right to a fully formed opinion until all the light thrown on the proposition by the two houses is within, his reach. But as he is bound to administer the laws under the constitution, he must form for himself, with the proper assistance, an interpretation of the constitution by which he mugfcabide. This seems to require him to interpose his veto in all; cases where he has a serious doubt, and to do this beforehand is better than to accept a law and have its constitutionality tried afterwards. Is then a chief magistrate armed with this power one of the sources of legislation on a par with legislative chambers ? Certainly not to the full extent of such a power, otherwise he should have the right of proposing laws or measures through his cabi- net or personally, instead merely of giving advice to the legis- lature on public affairs. He is rather a check on legislation, where the opinion in that department does not approach to unanimity. Thus the veto of our president is a part of that system of checks of which there are so many in the Anglican political system—a system which reminds one of an old .house with buttresses here and extensions there, that has served the .inhabitants well for centuries, but which needs repairs time to time in order to last through coming centuries,.